Analyses of innovation generally assume that it is a local or national process. This article uses world-system concepts and the case of the Irish and English cotton industries to argue that innovations are not intrinsically local but must be localized. Irish and English customs data and historical analysis are used to demonstrate how the localization of innovation around Manchester involved the peripheralization of the Irish industry by Britain. This peripheralization involved, first, the destruction of Irish spinning and the subjugation of Irish weaving and, eventually, the transformation of Irish textile activity into linen. It is further argued that innovation (Schumpeter's innovative response) is the defining characteristic of coreactivities, while adaptive response characterizes semiperipheral industry.
This study expands the theoretical discussion of ethnic economies by focusing on public sector employment and the role the state plays in affecting the socioeconomic fortunes of ethnic minorities. The authors argue that under certain circumstances public sector employment helps ethnic minorities attain higher socioeconomic rewards. The findings of the study indicate that Arab employees in Israel receive higher returns to education in the ethnic labor market, compared with the dominant market, and in the public sector rather than the private sector. The latter result also holds true when Arab workers are compared to Jews, revealing the benefits derived from the sheltered labor market.
Why does housework remain "women's work"? Some scholars argue that economic dependency comples wives to exchange unpaid labor for a share of the husband's income. Others claim that wives perform housework-and husbands avoid it-to enact symbolically their femininity or masculinity. This article examines both perspectives and finds that among wives the link between housework and the transfer of earnings in marriage complies with rules of economic exchange. However, the more a husband relies on his wife for economic support, the less housework he does. It appears that by doing less housework, economically dependent husbands also "dogender."
A regression model with fixed-effects and national individual-level panel0 data (1966-81) is used to decompose the sex gap in pay. In accordance with neoclassical predictions from human capital theory, net positive returns to individuals' education and experience and to occupations' cognitive and physical skills are found. While sex differences in experience have large effects on the sex gap skill contributes little to the gap. In accordance with cultural feminist predictions, negative returns to being in an occupation with a higher percentage of females or requiring more nurturant social skill are found. These forms of gendered valuation contribute significantly to the sex gap in pay. In contrast to the neoclassical prediction of compensating differentials, the analysis did not find consistently positive effects for onerous physical conditions, nor did these have much effect on the gap.
Much organizational theory and research uses an equilibrium assumption known as historical efficiency. This assumption implies that observed distributions of organizations at any point in time reflect the unique outcomes of underlying systematic processes, independent of historical details. In an attempt to assess the plausibility of this assumption in the context of organizational evolution, the authors use a well-established model to simulate trajectories of competing organizational populations. The findings show that path-dependent processes can often generate outcomes other than those implied by historical efficiency. Implications for theory and research are discussed.
Two opposing hypotheses seek to explain why black-white residential segreration persists despite open housing laws. One perspective argues that discriminatory practices in the marketing of real estate are responsible. Another view contends that it is the preferences of both blacks and whites for their own neighborhoods that maintain segregation. Using data from the Detroit Area Study of 1976 and 1992, the authors test the hypothesis that stereotypes among whites play an important role in explaining their resistance to integrated neighborhoods. They conclude that stereotype use links white preferences to discriminatory real estate practices in a way that helps to explain the persistence of segregation in the Detroit area.
The authors use life-history data on analyze the organizational evolution of U.S. minor-league baseball. The article introduces the concept of "structural mutualism" to account for the structural effects of required league membership on team foundings and deaths. This term refers to cooperative behavior that occurs among the teams within a league, that benefits each team, and that league membership promotes. Net of conventional density-dependence and population-dynamics mechanisms, strong evidence is found that structured mutualism affects team foundings and deaths. When structured mutualism is conceived of as variable, the concept may have more general applicability to other sets of membership organizations.