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Social Bases of Independent Public Expression in Communist Societies

Owing to official support of cultural traditions, the critical aspects of marxism, and the development of limited autonomy in cultural istitutions, independent public expression can and does develop in Communist societies despite the will of the political elite. In this paper, independent public expression is shown to be inherent in Communist societies; consequently, the relationship between politics and cultural life in these societies is considerably more complex than observers have posited.