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Poverty interferes with parents’ breastfeeding, child-care, and employment options and ability to meet their parenting goals. This study—the first randomized controlled trial of early childhood poverty reduction in the United States—investigates how increased economic resources affect 1,000 low-income US mothers’ breastfeeding, child-care, and employment practices and the ability to meet their intentions for these practices in the first year of their infant’s life. The likelihood and length of breastfeeding, use of nonparental child care, and maternal employment did not statistically differ among mothers who received a high ($333) or low ($20) monthly unconditional cash gift. The higher monthly cash gift, however, delayed the starting age of child care by almost 1 month and increased mothers’ ability to meet their breastfeeding intentions reported at birth.