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Mind Independence versus Mind Nongroundedness: Two Kinds of Objectivism*

In this article I argue that we should distinguish two characterizations of objectivism: Mind Nongroundedness Objectivism and Mind Independence Objectivism. I focus on the debate in metaethics, although the distinction may generally apply to others. According to Mind Nongroundedness Objectivism, moral standards are not grounded in any mind, while according to Mind Independence Objectivism, moral standards hold independently of any mind. Despite its importance, this distinction has so far not been noticed in the literature. I argue that this distinction helps elucidate otherwise puzzling metaethical positions (most notably, Wiggins’s sensible subjectivism and Korsgaard’s voluntarism).