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The relationship between cats and humans started more than 10,000 years ago in the first sedentary farming communities of the Near East. Cats were attracted by pests and vermin infesting granaries, and humans drew benefits from their presence as pest-control agents. Cats most likely started to spread with humans from the Levant during the Neolithic throughout Anatolia and then to the Balkans. Later in history, starting from the Classical period, cats from Egypt dispersed throughout the Mediterranean (and then globally) accompanying humans along trade routes. Concomitantly, their relationship with humans evolved: more than pest hunters, cats became human companions, and this, together with their adaptability, determined their evolutionary success. In this article, the authors revise the main zooarchaeological and paleogenetic evidence related to the dispersal of cats, drawing future lines of investigation for the study of cat domestication.