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When Does Globalization Lead to Local Adaptation? The Emergence of Hybrid Islamic Schools in Turkey, 1985–20071

Institutional perspectives of globalization envision the homogenization of the world through global cultural, economic, and political dynamics, while glocalization theory highlights how local cultures may adapt or resist global forces. On the basis of these theories, the authors analyze when, where, and why local hybrid organizational forms emerge as a reaction to globalization. They suggest that the impact of globalization on the emergence and expansion of hybrid organizational forms, which reflect local adaptations of global forms, depends on three types of moderators: (1) the fit between global and local ideas, values, and practices; (2) the experience of the local community with alternative organizational forms; and (3) the motivation of the local community to adapt. The authors test their hypotheses with data from the high school education system in Turkey from 1985 to 2007, a period in which Turkey experienced the growing impact of globalization.