Skip to main content
No Access

Parenthood and the Gender Gap in Pay

Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU) and Uppsala Center for Labour Studies (UCLS)IFAU, Uppsala University, and IZAIFAU

We compare the income and wage trajectories of women to those of their male partners before and after parenthood. Focusing on the within-couple gap allows us to control for both observed and unobserved attributes of the spouse and to estimate both short- and long-term effects of entering parenthood. We find that 15 years after the first child has been born, the male-female gender gaps in income and wages have increased by 32 and 10 percentage points, respectively. In line with a collective labor supply model, the magnitude of these effects depends on counterfactual relative incomes or wages within the family.