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Daily interactions between partisan elites, the media, and citizens are the driving dynamic of election campaigns and the central determinant of their outcomes. Accordingly, we develop a theory of campaign dynamics that departs from previous top-down models of campaign effects in its emphasis on the reciprocal campaign interactions between these actors. We examine these interactions with daily data on campaign expenditures, media coverage, and voter support in the 2000 presidential campaign. We find that partisan elites, the media, and citizens each played critical and interdependent roles in creating the dynamics of the campaign and producing the closest election in decades. We also find that the Gore campaign was hindered by its delayed responsiveness to the Bush campaign and its unwillingness to reinforce positive media coverage of Gore with increased campaign expenditures.